|Introduction| |First Scientific Interest to Music| |Reduction of Researches on Music| |New Rise of Interest to Music| |Understanding of Using Music in Russia| |Using Music in the Ukraine| |Summary| |References|
As soon as I learned of the existence of active forms of music therapy I began to ask myself many questions. I wanted to understand why music therapy in my home country was first of all connected with listening to music. Trying to find some reasons for such a preference I could find almost no written sources on this subject. The Names of Ivan Dogel (1830 – 1916), Ivan Sechenov (1829 – 1905), Vladimir Bechterev (1857- 1927), the period of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was almost the only accessible information I could find searching for historical precedents of this work. Speaking to psychologists, psychiatrists and music teachers in Zaporizhzhia, I heard about these people as first Russian speaking scientists who devoted their research to music. What research was carried out, what was noticed during the research? I wanted to find the answers to these questions in order to show that there was a history of music therapy in my country, and that this history began many years ago. I also wanted to illustrate what influenced some of the themes and preferences in its usage.
I began to compare references in books and articles of psychological, medical or even pedagogical journals to find out “old” and “new” names and thoughts. This way I saw, that in Russia there were many more papers to using music in medical journals comparing with psychological ones, and that in the Ukraine more articles appeared in pedagogical editions in which physicians and musicians combined their efforts writing as co-authors. Reading everything I could, I also understood, that even after all the time I spent for it, information was still not enough to write a good structured scientific article. I left my notes for a time hoping to come one day to other sources to complete my work. I was able to find new papers and short Internet messages on music therapy in Russia and the Ukraine, but on closer introspection they were not what I was looking for. They did not fully answer all of my questions.
One day, entering a PC-room at my university, I heard from our technical collaborative, that she had found a bibliography to music therapy on a Russian web site. It was put together by Simone Clebaner and enumerated more than hundred titles of both home and foreign written works up to the year 1990. It was a point, where I felt such a joy thinking that it would help me to fulfill my task. The work continued… I noticed that there were mostly works on music… First I took away all the titles, which were written in a foreign language and seemed to come from abroad. The list became much shorter… Then I looked at the year of publishing of other articles and asked in the library, what year could be usually available … So afterwards there remained only very few available… Again reducing my list further and making it more up to date.
So in this paper I would like to share the results of my search and thoughts, which occurred to me, connected with historical background of using music in Russia and the Ukraine, without having an aim to present particularly scientific material. I would like to touch upon both states, because I have always been and still feel like having two homes: in Russia I was born and spent my pre-school years full of brightness and value. In moving from Russia to Ukraine I learned, studied, worked and got many of the important life experiences. So, first facts about the first scientific researches on music, carried out in Tsar’s Russia, about interest to music during the period of Soviet rule and after the Ukraine became an independent state will be given.
Ivan Dogel and Ivan Sechenov, founders of Russian physiological school, noted stimulating influence of March music on the capacity of muscles. They saw that this music let tired soldiers feel fit again. Ivan Dogel also exposed what influence music makes on different centers and functions of the human organism and described results of his research in papers”Influence of music on circulation of blood” (1880), “Influence of music on humans and animals” (1898), “Influence of music on the nerve system of humans and animals”(1898), “Influence of music and colours on nerve system of humans and animals” (1898).
Vladimir Bechterev (1857-1927), neurologist, psychiatrist and psychologist pointed 1907 out on the influence of the music on the breath, palpitation, activity of endocrine glands. During the same year one more physiologist Ivan Tarchanov (1857-1927) showed that certain melodies gave humans gladness, slowed down pulse, increased force of heart’s systoles, furthered broadening of vessels and normalizing of arterial pressure and that irritated music made exactly opposite effect.
In 1908 on the initiative and under the leadership of Vladimir Bechterev a psychoneurological institute was founded in Petersburg. In 1914 a commission was formed to study the influence of the music on the living organism and on the human being. In May of the same year Vladimir Bechterev gave a talk, in which he showed that giving a child access to the music could be very important for the healthy development of the child’s organism: music helps to overcome nervousness and caprices. The scientist also recommended to use music in case of overstrains.
According to the meaning of academician Vladimir Bechterev, the base of the treating properties of music is sound toning. Low tones in music are associated with something heavy, thick, and material. High tones cause a feeling of lightness, sensation of space. So the scientist noted the fine and accurate influence of these tones on the emotional sphere of a human. 1916 the academician published an article with a title “Questions, which are connected with treating and hygienic meaning of music”.
Together with Sergey Korsakov (1854-1900), one of the founders of scientific school of psychiatrists, author of classical courses “Course of psychiatry”, Vladimir Bechterev also attached great importance to the music in the treatment of psychiatry patients.
Ivan Tarchanov, other Russian physiologist published some articles to influence of music too. Among them are “Influence of music on humans and animals”(1894), “About the influence of music on a human organism”(1893).
During 1914 music was used in operating rooms: it was considered that it reduced soul and body suffering, made pain less acute, and helped to make carrying out an operation easier and the recovery period quicker. So 1937 in surgical compartment of military hospital in Odessa (nowadays Ukraine) patients ordered music of their choice when they were operated upon.
At this point the question could arise, why is that, (mostly and/or exceptionally), physiologists are mentioned as researches of music, but not psychologists?
We must remember that in 1878 W.Wundt grounded the first institute for experimental psychology in Germany. The psychology of that time was closely connected with exact natural sciences. And psychologists could not carry similar researches, before the real establishment of psychology, which would mostly happen during the 20th Century.
The periods of First World War (1914 –1918), revolutionary situation, which has grown in Tsar’s Russia, held up the development of research devoted to music and its influence on humans. Many talented people had to flee abroad to preserve their lives. Russia lost most of the so-called “bloom of nation”..
A time of hunger and repressions followed. Saying a word, which did not correspond to the common opinion, had to be punished. A person had to consider, what the correct behaviour is in order not to be punished. The nation needed support to overcome it. And this support came from music. Songs, which told about a happy life in Soviet Union, about the love to one’s own country, were written. Just listen to the words: “My dear country is big, there are many woods, fields and rivers in it, I do not know any other country, where a person could breathe so free…” Or try to feel the power of this one: “The song helps us to build and to live… who goes through the life with a song, will never get lost…”
During the Second World War extra concerts were organized for soldiers. Artists sang favourite songs about home, loving families, who were waiting their men to come back with a victory, about a debt for the Home Country, which gave so much to everyone, creating new possibilities to learn, to study, to work. And men got new power… Women listened to the words coming from the radio: “I hear music singing about your smile and your eyes. The bushes whispered me about you, when I was in the fields near Moscow. I want you to hear, how my voice miss you… It is cold to struggle without your love”. And they spent nights making weapons in factories for their men, sent packings with products even having difficulties to find enough for their children and themselves. Nothing was more important than giving support.
Just remember the occupation of Leningrad (nowadays called Saint Petersburg): there was nothing there; people had neither food nor heating. Water froze in the glass on the table, many died and could not even be buried, because there was nobody there who could do it. At this time a symphonic concert was organized. So in August 1942 a powerful symphony by Dmitriy Shostakovich (1906-1975), which he devoted to Leningrad and its inhabitants, gave new breath to people to overcome.
Speaking about papers from the period of Soviet rule (1917-1991), it has to be said that not very much attention was paid to music, and there is an absence of many records of scientific works and the scientists who were occupied with it. In “Bibliography to music therapy” by Simona Clebaner, the interesting fact is that most of papers and books are written about functional music (111) and they appeared during the years of 1956-1981. The post-war period focused on re-building damaged areas as soon as possible, a schema, which strived to build the largest, the most beautiful, and the most unique buildings. Our parents and grandparents remember years of five-year-plans and social competitions with a motto “Catch and outdistance”, a striving to produce as much as possible, and to reach the best possible results in sports, science, military defending. Therefore it is no wonder that more than 100 of 111 research projects on functional music were published in the Soviet Union, and that most of them supposed to be from soviet scientists. The aim of such projects was to study the possibilities of using music in factories to affect the staff, into working better.
Why did most of the papers come from 1956 to 1981? This was the time between the post Second World War period and Perestroyka, which could be seen as a relatively stable one. During Perestroyka old stereotypes of happy life and a considerate state were destroyed. And this did not make some people feel safe.
Second place in the bibliography belongs to articles about music in psychotherapy (59), the third place is occupied by articles that deal with music in psychiatry (53), whereby 65 of these written papers on using music both in psychotherapy and psychiatry are from foreign authors and are written in their mother tongue.
What about other figures? Which ones are also significant? I noticed, that 49 articles are devoted to music in physiology, 9 are about music in psychology, 8 ones are attributed to music therapy and 8 to music and therapy.
Works written in Russian are mostly journal articles of about two–ten pages devoted to themes like:
As you can clearly see, these titles could be a good illustration to the historical background, historical understanding of functions of music, which helped our nations to overcome difficult times…
As mentioned above, punishment and reward was also a significant sign of times of involvement with the Soviet Union… When we were in first class we got little stars on our notebooks for every good written work. Those of us, who got the most of them, were praised in the presence of the whole class and even in meetings for parents. “Bad” pupils and their parents had to listen to teacher’s comments in the presence of other parents. Marks were and mostly are dictated loudly in the class so that everyone could know how you are learning or studying. We got gold medals for success in learning at school as addition to our certificate, red diploma for successful studying (others were and are blue). In our school there was also a board of honour, even two: one for the pupils, who were most successful in learning, and one for those of us who were successful in professional sports besides learning at school.
Speaking about Soviet pedagogy we have to remember one of its methods, and that was when a teacher had to suggest a pupil how to behave correctly. At work there also were meetings, where questions like productivity of the work and moral behaviour were discussed. Those who worked well, got premiums and honour. Those who did not were censured. I remember to proverbs, which we all know “Those who don’t work, don’t eat” and ”Initiative shall be punished”.
I suppose that it could be similar with “stimulus-reaction”. As we know, 1903 Ivan Pavlov, the Russian physiologist, made his famous experiments using animals. He registered phenomena of behaviour which were called “Pavlov`s reflex”. Later 1913 John Watson grounded behaviourisms in USA using the theory of Ivan Pavlov. Then B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) devoted his books to behaviourism. Among them are “The Behaviour of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis” (1938), “Science and Human Behaviour” (1953), “Schedules of Reinforcement” (1957) and others. So it is spoken about the control of stimulus, about positive and negative reinforcers. I specially noticed the quotations from home page of Skinner Foundation:
”Punishment is used to suppress behaviour. It consists of removing a positive reinforcer or presenting a negative one. It often seems to operate by conditioning negative reinforcers. The punished person henceforth acts in ways which reduce the threat of punishment and which are incompatible with, and hence take the place of, the behaviour punished” (Skinner).
“Personal freedom also seems threatened. It is only the feeling of freedom, however, which is affected. Those who respond because their behaviour has had positively reinforcing consequences usually feel free. They seem to be doing what they want to do. Those who respond because the reinforcement has been negative and who are therefore avoiding or escaping from punishment are doing what they have to do and do not feel free. These distinctions do not involve the fact of freedom” (Skinner).
So to at the same time different people had different feeling of freedom living in the Soviet Union. On the one hand “they did not know any other country, where a person could breathe/feel so free…” because of regarding of correct behaviour. And on the other hand people who were punished for “incorrect” behaviour could not feel free.
After the fall of Soviet Union, separating of republics and them becoming independent states, the interest for researching mechanisms of music influence increased again. More often the definition “music therapy” is used, which is treated in different ways.
Analysing different sources I saw that written works on using music appeared in the Russian Federation much earlier than in the Ukraine. What explanation could be found here? I think that it could be connected with the fact that the Ukraine had to build its own independent state system, and everything which it had not had being within the Soviet Union. The state and its citizens faced new currency, which was changed several times with losses of savings, incredible inflation, queues for getting products and goods, and many other things, which made us feel like losing the ground under our feet. I suppose, that is a real reason to, why some spheres of human activity began their development mostly after trying to solve some of problems we had developing as an independent nation…
The first publication to the questions of music therapy seems to have been published in Russia in 1993: several different authors mentioned a book by U.Evdokimov and V. Melnichenko “Music therapy: what? Why? How?”. It deals first of all with underlining of following points:
O.A.Blinova, the author of the article “Process of music psychotherapy: systematization and describing the main forms of work” (1998), guided by the published work of U.Evdokimov and V. Melnichenko, developed a complex system of personal oriented music psychotherapy. This system is directed to correction and prophylactic of difficulties of pre-clinical level in spheres of self-realizing, interpersonal communication, behavioristical deviations and self-regulating. O.A.Blinova tried to combine experiences of her forerunners in the field of music therapy with elements of gestalt-therapy, psychodrama, body-oriented psychotherapy, positive psychotherapy etc.
The author of this work uses both “passive” and “active” forms of music. The first form of work means, according to O.A.Blinova using music as background for the stimulating and realizing of feelings (“What do I feel now?”). The second form includes a number of “techniques”, which are based on active work of the client and include:
In the process of approbation of these methods O.A.Blinova came to the conclusion that “musicians” have more often than not musicians a wish to oppose when they hear about the exercises for improvisation because of fear to make a mistake (Blinova, 1998, p.116).
Galina Knyaseva, doctor of medicine and psychotherapist, and Andrey Bandura, doctor of studies of art and composer, take “Music therapy” by U.Evdokimov and V. Melnichenko as their basic starting point when presenting their own conception in the article “Musical history of an illness” (1999). The authors formulate a thought that it is necessary to know the structure of personality and a psycho-type of a patient in order to carry out music therapy successfully. They also recommend to be guided by results of psychoanalysis of personality and the work of that or this composer. Galina Knyaseva and A.Bandura believe that they should select music of that composer, whose psychical make-up is most close to the patient. The authors of the article also offer their music therapeutical program for a melancholic person, who suffers from inferiority complex, melancholy, depression, fear of death, and recommend using in the treatment music of Peter Ilyich Chaykovsky (Knyaseva, Bandura, 1999, p. 92).
At this point there are other understandings of it. In the course of “Psychotherapy” by B.D.Karvasarsky (1985) many attempts were noted to make up “therapeutic catalogues of music” with an aim to increase adequateness and effectiveness of using music in psychotherapy. B.D.Karvasarsky underlined that attitude to such lists is “rather skeptic and guardedly, because there exist much variables of clinical, psychological and social-psychological order, which influence the degree and direction of therapeutic influence of music” (Karvasarsky, 1985, p.125).
Valentin Petrushin published in 1999 a book with a title “Musical psychotherapy: theory and practice”. Professional musicians worked out a rational for music psychotherapy and tested it while working with different kinds of patients:
The aim of music therapy according to Valentin Petrushin is to bring a person to positive way of understanding things. The musician combined methods of “aesthetic therapy, the treatment with beauty, and art therapy, the treatment with ideals” (Petrushin, 1999, p.18). The author uses special breathing exercises (according to the principle of gymnastics of yoga), rhythmical movements and dances, group massage, review of follies with beautiful views of nature, masterpieces of world painting with music in back ground, deep relaxation to the music in the condition of meditation (Petrushin, 1999, p.35).
The conception of Valentin Petrushin is based on ancient Greek philosophers, Budda, Bible etc. In the capital “Health and moral principles” the author gives citations, prayers to use during music meditative exercises. In studies, which he carried out together with his colleagues, was determined that in most cases students liked music which corresponded with their type of temperament: melancholic persons preferred slow and choleric persons choose more rhythmical music (Petrushin, 1999, p.57).
Before listening to music Valentin Petrushin recommend to play and sing the melody of it. Thereby Valentin Petrushin thinks that it will help to understand music easier (Petrushin, 1999, p.63). The musician also supposes that individual work with a patient can bring more psychotherapeutic possibilities, when music therapist reproduces the condition of the patient playing for him musical improvisation. Valentin Petrushin supposes that listening of patient to the own musical portrait, created by the therapist, can give a client a possibility to see himself from outside (Petrushin, 1999, p.66).
In his book Valentin Petrushin notes the importance of helping the members of the group to find the composer, whose music will correspond to their psychological features (Petrushin, 1999, p.66). In the part “Comments of patients” members of groups, which were led by the author of presented conception, call Valentin Petrushin “teacher”, “teacher of self-education”. Thereby he speaks about himself as about psychotherapist (Petrushin, 1999, p.169).
Sergey Shushardzhian formulates one more, rather known conception of music therapy in Russia. Opera singer in his past, he became physician, president of international association of traditional medicine and academician. According to this conception, “music therapy is a system of psycho-somatic regulating of functions of organism”. Thereby is implied a simultaneous influence of acoustic waves, which are organized in a musical structure, on psycho-emotional, spiritual sphere of a person and direct on the surface of body and internal organs (Shushardzhian, 2000, p.17). Preceded from this definition Sergey Shushardzhian speaks about a possibility of music or singing influence depending on concrete tasks of a physician (Shushardzhian, 2000, p.15).
If it is spoken about music influence, computer diagnostics of a person are made and a kind of music is selected which could compensate a lack of health. So, some programs in music therapy were worked out and tested in one of clinics in Moscow for treating ulcerous illness of stomach and duodenum (Shushardzhian, 1996, p.12). An influence of different kinds of music on tumor cells was also studied there (Shushardzhian, 1999, p. 38).
If there is spoken about singing influence, singing therapy is used. This kind of therapy is defined as “new treating-preventive method, which is based on using of singing and principles of classical vocal, which increases reserve possibilities of organism (Shushardzhian, 1995, p.62).
Sergey Shushardzhian recommends using vocal therapy for treating of bronchial-pulmonary illnesses, hypertension on the initial stage, arrhythmia, stenocardia and disorders of nerve system. Thereby the position of the author is based on his observation of singers: “they seldom have pneumonia, do not know tumor of lungs and live mostly very long” (Shushardzhian, 1996, p.13). Besides solving of pure medical tasks the vocal therapy can, according to the meaning expressed by Sergey Shushardzhian, create a positive psycho-emotional background (Shushardzhian, 1995, p.62). According to this method vocal therapeutic sessions have to be carried out by a high qualified vocal- specialist, who seeks to develop by a patient a right breathing, which is a ground of health (Shushardzhian, 1996, p.13). The vocal therapeutic session ends with singing of one popular song or a fragment of favorite work. This singing could be solo or in chorus ?quoted in Luban Plozza, Poberezhnaya, Belov, 2002, p. 123].
Nowadays authors of Ukraine try to study Russian articles and books to music and music therapy, which are written by Russian speaking authors, developing their own understanding of it. Sometimes I noticed rather similar conceptions and was not absolutely sure, whether the Ukrainian or the Russian one was developed first…
So, L.M. Slobodyan, professor, doctor of medical sciences of Medical Institute Ternopil, and R.V. Petrenko, collaborator of Children’s’ clinical hospital in Ternopil, described results of positive influence of classical music on lactation in the article “The use of music therapy in the treatment of secondary hypogalacty /lack of milk/”. According to the point of the authors sessions of “music therapy” were carried out daily and lasted 45 minutes. The women listened to music of Klod Debussy (“Moon light” from “Bergamask suit”) lying in a room for music therapy. L.M. Slobodyan and R.V. Petrenko mentioned that most of women became calmer and some of them even fall asleep during session (Slobodyan, Petrenko, 1996, p. 64). They noted that after a course of music therapy women of experimental group had more milk for one nursing comparing with control group.
L.M. Slobodyan and R.V. Petrenko keep the described method for easy to use and recommend trying it also at home. Thereby the authors think that a course of musical treatment has to consist of not less than 10 sessions (Slobodyan, Petrenko, 1996, p. 65).
N.V.Slobodyanik, junior research worker of Institute of Psychology named after G.S.Kostuk, describes in the article “Ways of mastering principles of humane type of behaviour in the process of collective musical activity” collective study of music works and its positive effects on members of a circle. As effects of carrying out of tasks devoted to improvement of quality of the play on music instruments the author named following: stimulation of psychological readiness for perceiving of critical remarks of members of musical circle, respect of thoughts of others, co-operation, mutual aid (Slobodyanik, Kostuk, 2000, p.41). Thereby N.V.Slobodyanik notes effectiveness of creative using of models in contrast to full following them (Slobodyanik, Kostuk, 2000, p.42).
Svetlana Nechay, PHD-student of Institute of Problems of Education, recommends in the article “The role of music in social adaptation of orphan children” to use music therapy, plays by music and dramatic activity by musical accompaniment (Nechay, 2001, p. 39) to make the process of adaptation of children more easy. According to the meaning of the author “music therapy consists of creative and receptive activity, which is connected with a sphere of emotional, ethical and esthetical feelings, cognition and turn of interests of a person” (Nechay, 2001, p. 39).
Svetlana Nechay suggested different ways of using music therapy in children’s homes: for hyperactive and for passive children /music-rhythmical movements, listening to music, elements of music therapy – relaxation, singing /mostly lullabies//. Thereby the choice of music is made according to ISO-principle (Nechay, 2001, p. 40).
Larisa Besemchuk, lecturer of State Pedagogical University Charkov named after Grigoriy Skovoroda, published the article “Creative development of school pupils using music”. In this article the author presented a program worked out for teenagers.
Besides general education tasks Larisa Besemchuk recommended:
Yaroslav Pusich, Doctor of medical sciences, head of chair for health care of a specialized boarding school in Slavutich /Chmelnizky region/, and Irina Nikolaeva, lecturer of culture and art, published the article “Music and health”. The authors pointed out on the fact that a special role play place, time, conditions while listening to music and also age and health condition of a person Thereby a list of music work is given to reduce anxiety, to make calm, to reduce head ache… (Pusich, Nikolaeva, 2002a, p. 57). Yaroslav Pusich and Irina Nikolaeva describe results of an unofficial research of influence of music video clips on pupils of 5-6 classes. The conclusion was made that rock music has a negative influence on values of teenagers (Pusich, Nikolaeva, 2002a, p. 58). In the article “Music and health: psycho-physiological aspects» the authors note that there are reasons to consider that “music has essential influence on a health and vital capacity of a human (Pusich, Nikolaeva, 2002b, p. 29). Yaroslav Pusich and Irina Nikolaeva also mention that “the most powerful therapeutic effect is caused by Mozarts` melodies” (Pusich, Nikolaeva, 2002b, p.29).
Olena Turina, assistant professor of the chair for orchestra stringed, wind and percussion instruments at National University of Culture and Art in Kiev, writes down her thoughts about music in the article “Music-aesthecal education of teenagers with limited physical possibilities”. So Olena Turina thinks that “music helps to form perception of beautifullness in life, art, helps to a human to become noble, influences on psyche, immagination, feelings, thoughts, will, is an active mean of prophylaxis of streses. It is like a therapy” (Turina, 2002, p. 59). The author describes a concert, which was hold by boys and girls of creative laboratory and boarding school for children with limited possibilities.
In the article “Music therapy” by Svetlana Cheluskina an experiment carryed out by doctor Fedor Zelenin with patients having asthma of one clinic of Kiev is described. On evenings a chorus of patients sang songs. Bel canto helped them to feel better and to get remision (quoted in Cheluskina, 2002). Fedor Zelenin studied sound influence on living cells using music of different styles: classic, spiritual, pop and determined that activity of microbes decreased 40 % by sounding of bells and church singing (quoted in Cheluskina, 2002).
Boris Luban-Plozza, a professor and doctor of medicine. Galina Poberezhnaya, doctor in the study of art, professor, astropsychlogistn and head of the chair for theory and history of music at the National Pedagogical University, which was named after M. Dragomanov in Kiev. And finally Oleg Belov, a doctor-psychiatrist and of medicine, assistent to the chair for psychiatry of the Medical Academy of post-graduated education in Kiev, who is also the director of the Center for psycho—somatic medicine and psychotherapy in Kiev. All of the above published a work together titled “Music and psyche: listening with the soul”. There is a chapter devoted to music in psychotherapeutic practice there. The authors suppose that “further researches in the field of music therapy could be developed in to main directions: research of direct influence of music on the organism of a human /physiological, bio-chemical, biological aspects/ and nondirect /emotional, aesthetic, spiritual/ influence of music” (Luban-Plozza, Poberezhnaya, Belov, 2002, p.124).
The authors mentioned sessions of Holotropic breathe work after Stanislav Grof, who “offered a new approach in using music in psychotherapeutic work” (Luban-Plozza, Poberezhnaya, Belov, 2002, p.107). Boris Luban-Plozza, Galina Poberezhnaya, Oleg Belov write further: “Intensive deep breath is a powerful activator for changed /trance/ conditions of consciousness and … gives a depth of perception of music” (Luban-Plozza, Poberezhnaya, Belov, 2002, p.120).
The team of authors mentioned not only the theory, which was developed by Stanislav Grof, but also the theory by Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung and A. Pontvic. The team took all the works as basics of their own method. Thereby it is spoken about interdependence of music and dreams, music and myths, psycho-resonance /resonance of human consciousness and sounding harmonic forms/ (Luban-Plozza, Poberezhnaya, Belov, 2002, p. 16, 119).
Historical backgrounds of using music in Russia and the Ukraine are rather similar: both countries have the same history of belonging to the Soviet Union, which lasted more then seventy years. Receptive methods of using music were used to increase working productivity, to give to people a feeling of having a happy life as soviet citizens. Concerts and music films gave emotional support and helped to overcome difficult times.
As soviet power influenced almost all the spheres of human activity punishing and rewarding according to “incorrect” or “correct” behaviour, the meaning came into existence that it could be spoken about “correct” or “incorrect” also in any other context. So at some points we can still find active forms of using music, which are connected with “right playing”, “right singing”, and “right understanding of music”.
Representatives of pedagogy, psychology and medicine use music, and go out from rather different starting points (according to their main education). Therefore there exist different understandings of music therapy both in Russia and the Ukraine.
Nowadays we can still find both old and new particular ways of using music. And that happens thanks to open borders, conferences, and international projects. Such an exchange of experiences is very important for learning foreign schools of music therapy, learning new methods, developing of own ones. And I feel that it is often still missing in our countries.
Developing methods of work in situations, where information is lacking, authors need time to prove and experiment before going into the public arena. Therefore I believe that it is very important to get new impulses …
I hope that this paper could make some things, which are connected with our background, a bit more understandable and give some information about existing forms of using music.
I would like to express my thanks to Mia Marie Wraight, who struggled hard with my grammar and vocabulary helping me to choose a way to write down my thoughts in English.
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[Clebaner, Simone. Bibliography to Music therapy (up to the year 1990), Retrived from www, url no longer available] Библиография по музыкальной терапии (до 1990 года)/сост. Клебанер С.Л.
[Chelyuskina, Svetlana (2002). Music therapy. Kiev’s newspaper, no 259] Челюскина С. Музыкальная терапия// Киевские ведомости. – 2002. - № 259
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